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Male & Female Reproductive system/ Fertilisation, anatomy, fertility, birth control methods, STI
An excellent training about Science
Complete Biology: Introduction to Human Reproduction, Biology
This course has been designed for anyone who is interested to learn about the male and female reproductive systems of human. This is good for general knowledge as well as it has the exam specification ofAnatomy/ Physiology/ Biology/ IGCSE/ GCSE/ O level/ AQA/ CheckPoint andOther syllabus. After the completion of this course you will be able to: Identify and name on diagrams of the malereproductive system: the testes, scrotum, sperm ducts, prostate gland, urethra andpenis, and state the functions of these partsIdentify and name on diagrams of the female reproductive system: the ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix and vagina, and state the functions of these partsDescribe fertilisation as the fusion of the nuclei from a male gamete (sperm) and a female gamete (egg cell/ovum)State the adaptive features of sperm, limited to flagellum and the presence of enzymesState the adaptive features of egg cells, limited to energy stores and a jelly coating that changes after fertilisationState that in early development, the zygoteforms an embryo which is a ball of cells that implants into the wall of the uterusState the functions of the umbilical cord, placenta, amniotic sac and amniotic fluidOutline the growth and development of the fetus in terms of increasing complexity in the early stages and increasing size towards the end of pregnancyDescribe the ante-natal care of pregnant women, limited to special dietary needs and the harm from smoking and alcohol consumptionOutline the processes involved in labour and birth, limited to: breaking of the amniotic sac contraction of the muscles in the uteruswall dilation of the cervix passage through the vagina tying and cutting the umbilical cord delivery of the afterbirthCompare male and female gametes in terms of size, structure, motility and numbersExplain the adaptive features of sperm, limited to flagellum, mitochondria and enzymes in the acrosomeExplain the adaptive features of egg cells, limited to energy stores and the jelly coat that changes at fertilisationDescribe the function of the placenta and umbilical cord in relation to exchange of dissolved nutrients, gases and excretory products and providing a barrier to toxins and pathogens (structural details are not required)State that some toxins, e.g. nicotine, and pathogens, e.g. rubella virus, can pass across the placenta and affect the fetus Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of breast-feeding compared with bottle-feeding using formula milkDescribe the roles of testosterone andoestrogen in the development and regulationof secondary sexual characteristics duringpubertyDescribe the menstrual cycle in terms ofchanges in the ovaries and in the lining of theuterusDescribe the sites of production of oestrogenand progesterone in the menstrual cycle andin pregnancyExplain the role of hormones in controllingthe menstrual cycle and pregnancy, limited toFSH, LH, progesterone and oestrogenMethods of birth control in humansOutline the following methods of birthcontrol: natural, limited to abstinence, monitoringbody temperature and cervical mucus chemical, limited to IUD, IUS, contraceptive pill, implant and injection barrier, limited to condom, femidom, diaphragm surgical, limited to vasectomy and femalesterilisationSupplementOutline the use of hormones in contraceptionand fertility treatmentsOutline artificial insemination (AI)Outline in vitro fertilisation (IVF)Discuss the social implications ofcontraception and fertility treatmentsSexually transmitted infections (STIs)Define sexually transmitted infection as aninfection that is transmitted via body fluidsthrough sexual contactState that human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) is an example of an STIExplain how the spread of STIs is controlledDescribe the methods of transmission of HIVState that HIV infection may lead to AIDSOutline how HIV affects the immune system, limited to decreased lymphocyte numbersand reduced ability to produce antibodies
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