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A Perfect Beginners guide to learn and understand about General Quantum Computing based on IBM Qiskit Documentation
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Dummies guide to Practical Quantum Computing with IBM Qiskit
Hello and welcome to my new course The Dummies guide to Practical Quantum Computing with IBM Qiskit. Our current classical computing technology is based on bits or binary digits 1 and 0. 1 for ON and 0 OFF. Even though it have two states, a bit can exist in only one state at a time. Just like a coin having two faces head and tail. NOTE: In classical computers a programmer can simply WRITE HIGHLEVELCODEANDRUN it. But for Quantum Computers we have to DESIGNCIRCUITS for performing specific tasks. Quantum computing concept is entirely different from classical one. It use the quantum mechanical property of tiny sub atomic particles like electrons to perform computation. Instead of 1 and 0, a qubit or quantum bit uses the spin position ‘up’ and ‘down’ of electrons. But unlike bits, qubits can exist in both state simultaneously. Like a coin keeps on spinning, we could say it is having equal probability for both head and tail. Or it is both head and tail at the same time. For example consider an 1 bit calculation of finding the best path. 0 means right and 1 means left. A classical computer with a single bit have to first set bit to 0 to go to left path and later 1 to go to right path to find the best path. But a quantum computer with a single qubit can go through both the path simultaneously and arrive at a solution in just only half the time. As the number of qubits increases, this speed increases exponentially compared to classical computers. Computations like data analytic, artificial intelligence which require large parallel processing ability can perform calculations in matter of milli-seconds where it now takes ages to complete. Even though its not going to replace our laptops or mobile phones, Quantum computers will be able to solve these road blocks of traditional computers in data processing. Recently Google announced it has a quantum computer that is 100 million times faster than any classical computer in its lab. The first section of our course from sessions 1 to 6, we are learning essential details about quantum mechanics, and quantum bits which will start with an introduction to quantum mechanics. We will try to have a quick understanding about the difference between quantum mechanics and classical physics, dual nature of particles, double slit experiment, superposition, quantum entanglement etc in the most simplest way of explanation. In the next session we will discuss about the difference between classical bits and quantum bits called qubits. Creating, representing and processing a classical bit. Then how a qubit is generated, what’s inside the qubit, how data is represented in qubit and what makes it faster than classical bits. Then we will see in details how a qubit is created and how its retaining its information. We will also discuss the structure of a quantum computer and the way qubits are dealt within it. Then we will learn about scalars and vectors. How vectors and matrices are used to represent the state of a quantum bit. About representing the qubit as Ket vectors and matrices. We will also learn basic matrix operations. After learning about classical bits and qubits, we can now proceed with gates. At first we will learn about classical gates, its working and also different types of classical gates and their truth tables. In the next session, we will learn about the popular quantum frameworks by leading companies researching on quantum computers, their merits and demerits. Having all concepts clear, now we can proceed with the practical part of our course. We will at first setup our computer by installing python environment. Its made easy by installing python distribution called anaconda. Then we will proceed with installing and testing qiskit, the quantum framework by IBMOnce we have qiskit in our computer and the quantum simulator running, we will be coding our first quantum circuit using the simple quantum gate called the Pauli x gate. Later we will try customizing the input and output to the Pauli x gate and verify the operations. Once we verified in simulator, its time we can try that in a real quantum computer. IBM provides access to their number of quantum computers located in research facilities around the world. Using IBM quantum experience interface we can simply create our Pauli x gate circuit to work in a real quantum computer and get output. Then we will check how we can represent matrices as state vectors using dirac notation. We will see how Pauli x gate matrices will be represented as a state vector. Similarly we will proceed with Pauli Y gate. We will check the state vector and try with the operations in our qiskit simulator at first and then implement it in the IBM real quantum computer. Like that, another gate called the Pauli Z gate. For this one also we will learn about the operations in our qiskit simulator at first and then implement it in real quantum computer. In the next session, we will learn about the Eigen value and Eigen vectors of our already learnt Pauli x, y and z gates. After that, we will learn about a new gate called as the
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